Ireland, described as the Republic of Ireland, is a state in northwest Europe with a population of almost 4.5 million people. It is a parliamentary democratic constitutional republic that occupies approximately five-sixths of the island of Ireland, which was partitioned into two jurisdictions in 1921. It is bordered to the northeast by Northern Ireland, which is a part of the United Kingdom, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the Irish Sea to the east, St George's Channel to the southeast, and the Celtic Sea to the south.
The state, initially the Irish Free State, was established on 6 December 1922 as a dominion within the British Commonwealth as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which concluded the Irish War of Independence. It gained increasing sovereignty through the Statue of Westminster and the abdication crisis of 1936. A new constitution introduced in 1937 declared it as an entirely sovereign state named Ireland. The last formal link with the United Kingdom was severed in 1949 when the Oireachtas (national parliament) passed the Republic of Ireland Act, which declared Ireland a republic by removing the remaining duties of the monarch. Consequently, Ireland left the then British Commonwealth, having ceased attending Commonwealth meetings in 1937.
During British rule and initial independence, Ireland was one of the poorest countries in Western Europe and experienced high emigration. Despite this, in contrast to many other states in that period, it stayed financially solvent and remained a democracy. The protectionist economy was opened in the late 1950s and in 1973 Ireland joined what is now called the European Union. An economic crisis led Ireland to start large-scale economic reforms in the late 1980s which led to widespread emigration. Ireland reduced taxation and regulation dramatically compared to other EU countries. The rapid growth of the economy during the 1990s saw the beginning of unprecedented economic growth in the phenomenon known as the "Celtic Tiger", which lasted until the global financial crisis of 2007-2010.
Ireland is one of the world's most developed countries. In 2006 it had the sixth highest nominal GDP per capita and the ninth highest per capita considering PPP. The country is ranked fifth in the Human Development Index, first in the Economist Intelligence Unit's quality-of-life index, and sixth on the Global Peace Index. It is also ranked first for press freedom and fourth for economic freedom. Ireland also has high rankings for its education system, political freedom and democracy. It is one of the most sustainable countries in the world, ranking fifth from bottom in the Failed States Index. Ireland is a member of the OECD, the WTO and the UN.
Capital and biggest city is Dublin
The President of Ireland is it's Head of State. The President is usually directly elected by the people for seven years, and can be elected for a maximum of two terms. The Head of Government is the Taoiseach, he is chosen by the President.
The Country has one zoo mentioned on these pages in the city of Dublin and an Aquarium in the city of Dingle
Most western Countrys do not need a Visa
International callingcode is +353
The countrys curency is the Euro (EUR)